Expert Contradictions

In 'The Easy-ish Way To Lose Weight And Get Fit', I mention what I call the chaos of contradictions. It's hard for anyone who wants to lose weight to know what to do because the experts all seem to disagree. If you do enough reading, it seems as if any expert opinion will always be contradicted by another expert opinion in a different book.

Here are a few examples. If you'd like to offer any more examples that I can add to this page, just send me an email and let me know.

Some Examples

Your body can convert sugar/carbohydrates into fat (via ‘de novo lipogensis’)

 

“- Stimulation of Fat Production

Some fat in the body can be made from sugar through a process known as ‘de novo lipogenesis’. This process is driven by the enzyme ‘acetyl co-A carboxylase’, which is activated by insulin.”

‘Escape the Diet Trap’ by Dr. John Briffa, copyright 2012, Fourth Estate paperback edition [2013]. Chapter 6 , ‘Low Fat Fallacy’, pg. 57.

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“Some of the triglycerides in our fat tissue come from fat in our diet. The rest come from carbohydrates, from a process known as de novo lipogenesis, which is Latin for “the new creation of fat,” a process that takes place both in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the fat tissue itself.”

‘The Diet Delusion’ by Gary Taubes, copyright 2007, Vermilion edition 2009.

Chapter 22. ‘The Carbohydrate Hypothesis, II: Insulin’, pg. 387.

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“De novo lipogenesis is the term used for synthesis of fatty acids from non-lipid precursors. It is in effect a pathway for disposing of excess carbohydrate, and it is stimulated by conditions of high carbohydrate availability.” Pg 98

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“6.4.1 Carbohydrate and fat metabolism

Lipogenesis

6.4.1.1 Lipogenesis means the synthesis of lipid. More strictly, the term de novo lipogenesis means the synthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol from substrates other than lipids - particularly glucose, although amino acids which can be converted to acetyl-CoA can in principle also be substrates. The pathway itself was outlined in Box 4.3. It provides a means by which excess carbohydrate can be laid down for storage as triacylglycerol (since, as we have seen, this is the most energy-dense storage compound). The pathway of de novo lipogenesis may occur in both liver and adipose tissue. We do not know the relative importance of these tissues in humans; both are thought to play some role, although liver is likely to be more important.” Pg 180.

‘Metabolic Regulation: A Human Perspective’ by Keith N. Frayn. Second edition. Copyright 2003.

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“Because storage of energy as lipid is much more efficient than storage as carbohydrate, the presumption has been that animals use de novo lipogenesis as a metabolic safety valve for storage of carbohydrate energy present in excess of carbohydrate oxidative needs (i.e. carbohydrate energy surplus). // Most experimental data in humans, however, contradict this view of the function of de novo lipogenesis. Initial studies in which indirect calorimetry was used showed little or no net de novo lipogenesis after short-term carbohydrate overfeeding. Subsequent isotopic studies confirmed the absence of quantitatively significant flux through hepatic de novo lipogenesis under most conditions of carbohydrate energy surplus.”

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 74, Issue 6, December 2001, Pages 707–708, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/74.6.707

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Excess protein can promote cancer

“We now know that animal protein consumed in excess of what humans need becomes a powerful cancer promoter, based on Dr. Campbell’s studies as reported in ‘The China Study’.”

‘Food Over Medicine: The Conversation That Could Change Your Life’ by Pamela A. Popper and Glen Merzer, copyright 2013, First Trade Paper edition 2014.

Chapter 2, ‘The Program’, page 28.

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“Not only did meat not seem to increase stomach cancer rates (which we might expect if Campbell’s “animal protein spurs cancer growth” hypothesis held true), but it actually showed the opposite trend.”

Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer in Sixty-Five Chinese Counties (PDF) by Robert W. Kneller, Wan-De Guo, Ann W. Hsing, Jun-Shi Chen, William J. Blot, Jun-Yao Li, David Forman, and Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr.

https://deniseminger.com/2011/07/31/one-year-later-the-china-study-revisited-and-re-bashed/

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http://www.vegsource.com/news/2010/07/china-study-author-colin-campbell-slaps-down-critic-denise-minger.html

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Then Denise replies to Campbell, and the Campbell replies to Denise.

The videos on the www.plantpositive.com website aim to debunk Denise Minger’s criticisms of Campbell.

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You should eat grains

“So we advise people to include a lot of grains and legumes and potatoes in their diet because they add calorie density to the meals without adding lots of fat and too many calories. Nature’s perfect plan for humans.” < Ch. 1 ‘Deep-fried butter on a stick and other atrocities’ pg. 7

“Let’s posit a hierarchy of starch. The healthiest starch comes from whole, unprocessed foods, such as whole grains, potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, corn and so forth. The next healthiest but suboptimal starch comes from broken grains, also known as flours.” < Ch. 1 ‘Deep-fried butter on a stick and other atrocities’ pg. 8

“GM: Let’s list the grains that could be the basis of a diet.

PP: Rice, quinoa, wheat, corn, barley, buckwheat, any of them.” < Ch. 2 ‘The Program’ pg. 33.

‘Food Over Medicine: The Conversation That Could Change Your Life’ by Pamela A. Popper and Glen Merzer, copyright 2013, First Trade Paper edition 2014.

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“Most people are of the impression that grass seed (aka grains), most notoriously wheat, is a healthy part of the human diet. Nothing could be further from the truth. All grass seeds/grains cause horrendous damage to your body because they are loaded with huge amounts of sugar, which causes diabetes and makes you super fat, which is highly inflammatory. — FOUR leading causes of ageing and many diseases.

This is what eating grains do to your body:”

From 'Heath's 7 Deadly Sins' by Peter Pure. Peter then provides a list of 27 ailments, diseases and conditions listed, starting with “acne, anaemia, Alzheimer’s”, ending with “rotting teeth, spotty skin, stroke” and “death, premature” is on the list. All are with footnotes to scientific papers. There are 13 research papers and sources cited just for the claim about ‘stroke’ alone. These paper have names like:

‘Bucala R, Makita Z, Vega G et al. Modification of low density lipoprotein  by advanced glycation end products contributes to the dyslipidemia of diabetes and renal insufficiency. Proc Natl Acad  Sci USA 1994; 91:9441-5.’

This paper only contains the word ‘stroke’ once, when it says, “Since diabetes has been estimated to afflict at least 10 million people in the United States alone, the contribution of diabetes to the overall mortality of heart disease and stroke is significant (1-3).”

“The following are all grass seeds: [list of 16 seeds, including all the ones mentioned by Pamela Popper]. All of these grass seeds are highly inflammatory and are all around 80% sugar (dry weight). Sugar and inflammation drive all ageing and degenerative chronic diseases”.

Jacket blurb: To date, Peter has only been ill twice in his life – once with a flu, the other a headache. But even being sick twice was not acceptable to Peter, so instead, starting as a child, Peter fell in love with researching how to experience extraordinary health and well-being. During his 12-year professional teaching career, Peter has taught how to experience superior health, and how to get rid of health problems to over 12,000 people.”

“Heath’s 7 Deadly Sins” by Peter Pure. Copyright 2017. MaxVitality Press.

Chapter 4: ‘Deadly Health Sin 4 / Death By Wheat And Grains’. Page 31 – 33.

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“Many grain-based foods including wheat, bread, white rice, rice cakes and breakfast cereals generally have high GIs and GLs // High GI and GL diets are associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. // Compared with fruits and vegetables, grains are quite un-nutritious foods.”

“There’s no shortage of opinion about what we should and shouldn’t eat; the trouble is that so much of it is conflicting, confusing or contradictory. // But leaving the science aside for a moment, what does common sense tell us about which foods really are the best to eat? One strong line of argument here is that the healthiest diet for us will be one based on the foods we’ve been eating the longest during our time on earth. There are the foods we evolved to eat, after all, and are therefore those that we’re best adapted to and will serve our health needs the best. Relative nutritional newcomers, on the other hand, are likely to create a ‘mismatch’ with our ancient physiology and will more likely lead to ill health and disease.”

‘Escape the Diet Trap’ by Dr. John Briffa, copyright 2012, Fourth Estate paperback edition [2013]. Chapter 6 , ‘Low Fat Fallacy’, pg. 57.

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We Should Pay Attention To ‘The China Study’

“Well, The China Study shows that the cancer-promoting effect was limited to animal protein. We didn’t see this effect when it came to plant protein, but that doesn’t mean that high amounts of plant protein don’t become problematic. That’s why people need to consume a high-carbohydrate, low-protein, low-fat diet.” < Ch 2 ‘The Program’. pg 31.

‘Food Over Medicine: The Conversation That Could Change Your Life’ by Pamela A. Popper and Glen Merzer, copyright 2013, First Trade Paper edition 2014.

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“China Crisis

2005 saw the publication of a book entitled The China Study by by researcher T. Colin Campbell. It was based on epidemiological research conducted in China (referred to in the book as ‘the China Study’) which Campbell claims provided a powerful argument for avoiding cholesterol and animal protein. The book also refers to laboratory work in which giving the milk protein casein to animals increased the risk of liver cancer. The China Study and the research on which it is based are commonly cited as evidence for the health-giving benefits of vegetarian and vegan eating.

In reality, The China Study is actually peppered with half-truths and misinformation. For example, while casein was found to induce liver cancer in animal studies, the doses used in the experiments were  massive compared to the doses humans might consume. An important omission is the fact that another protein in milk — whey — has been found to reduce risk of liver cancer in animals. Also, there is some doubt about how relevant this animal research is to human health.

Many of the book's conclusions are drawn from the China Study itself, which was epidemiological in nature. In this respect, however voluminous the data, they are of no use for discerning cause and effect. Taking the data at face value for a moment. though, The China Study did not reveal significant associations between animal protein and cancer, heart disease or overall risk of death None of this, of course, supports Campbell's contention that animal protein should be eliminated from the diet.”

‘Escape the Diet Trap’ by Dr. John Briffa, copyright 2012, Fourth Estate paperback edition [2013]. Chapter 18, ‘Prime Fuel’, pg. 184.

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Olive Oil Is A Good Thing

“The health benefits of olive oil have long been recognised. Olive oil contains large amounts of antioxidants including polyphenols and oleocanthal, which has anti-inflammatory properties. Among its purported benefits are reduced inflammation, lowered cholesterol, decreased blood clotting and reduced blood pressure. Together, these potential properties may reduce the overall risk of cardiovascular disease including heart attacks and strokes.” Ch. 19 ‘What to eat’, pg. 231.

‘The Obesity Code / Unlocking the secrets of weight loss’ by Jason Fung. Copyright 2016. Scribe edition 2016.

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“GM: What do clinical studies tell us about oils?

PP: They tell us that they’re not health foods. This goes heavily against the grain of popular wisdom. There’s a myth that it’s not the amount of fat we’re eating, but it’s the type of fat; that olive oil is heart heathy and fish oil particularly heart healthy. Unfortunately, the evidence just doesn’t take us there. In fact, oils can be successfully used to treat autoimmune conditions because they suppress immune function. I don’t think it’s the right way to treat autoimmune conditions, but the fact they suppress immune function should tell a healthy person you don’t want to be taking in a lot of this stuff. //

‘Food Over Medicine: The Conversation That Could Change Your Life’ by Pamela A. Popper and Glen Merzer, copyright 2013, First Trade Paper edition 2014.

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Obesity Is About Energy In .v. Energy Out

“11.5 Treatment of obesity”

11.5.1 Dieting from the viewpoint of metabolic regulation

Obesity, as we have seen, results from an excess of energy intake over energy expenditure. If the obese or overweight person wants to lose weight, then the solution is simple and unarguable: energy expenditure must exceed energy intake for a suitable length of time.”

‘Metabolic Regulation: A Human Perspective’ by Keith N. Frayn. Second edition. Copyright 2003.

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“The key assumption of the theory that reducing caloric intake leads to weight loss is false, since decreased caloric intake leads to decreased caloric expenditure. This sequence has been proven time and again. // Caloric restriction and portion-control strategies only make you tired and hungry. Worst of all... you regain all the weight you have lost. // We forget this inconvenient fact because our doctors, our dieticians, our government, our scientists, our politicians and our media have all been screaming at us for decades that weight loss is all about Calories In versus Calories Out. ‘Caloric reduction is primary’. ‘Eat less, move more.’ We have heard it so often that we do not question whether it’s the truth. // The portion-control caloric-reduction diet is virtually guaranteed to fail. Eating less does not result in lasting weight loss.”

‘The Obesity Code / Unlocking the secrets of weight loss’ by Jason Fung. Copyright 2016. Scribe edition 2016.

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“GM: So it’s simplistic and misleading to say that carbs are fattening?”

PP: When people tell me carbohydrates are fattening, I tell them, ‘You know, two billion Asians never got that memo.’ ”

‘Food Over Medicine: The Conversation That Could Change Your Life’. pg. 9

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“The carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis, the idea that carbohydrates cause weight gain because of insulin secretion, was not exactly wrong. Carbohydrate-rich foods certainly do increase insulin levels to a greater extent than the other macronutrients. High insulin certainly does lead to obesity. // However, the hypothesis stands incomplete. There are many problems, with the paradox of the Asian rice eater being the most obvious. Most Asians, for at least the last half-century, ate a diet based on white, polished rice, a highly refined carbohydrate. Yet, until recently, obesity remained quite rare in these populations. // [Table comparing UK, US, China, Japan] Total and percentage carbohydrate intake in China far exceeds the other nations. Sugar intake in China, however, is extremely low compared to the other nations. Japan’s carbohydrate intake is similar to that of the UK and the US, but its sugar consumption is far lower. // So the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis was not incorrect, but clearly something else was going on. Total carbohydrate intake was not the entire story. Sugar seemed to be contributing much more to obesity than other refined carbohydrates. // Clearly, the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis is an incomplete theory, leading many to abandon it rather than try to reconcile it with the known facts. One possibility is that there is an important difference in eating rice versus wheat. Asians tend to eat rice, whereas Western societies tend to take their carbohydrates as refined wheat and corn products. // The missing link was insulin resistance.

‘The Obesity Code / Unlocking the secrets of weight loss’ by Jason Fung. pg 103-106.

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You can always contact me: ian@ianrowland.com